Yarn is a kind of textile , processed from various textile fibers into products of a certain fineness, used for weaving, rope making, thread making, knitting and embroidery, etc., and are divided into short fiber yarns, continuous filaments, etc.
The fineness of yarn can be expressed in many ways, such as number, metric count, imperial count, denier, etc. (see count) . The twist of a yarn is expressed as the number of twists per meter or per inch.
Wool yarn and wool are generally used to weave woolen sweaters, woolen trousers, woolen vests, scarves, hats and gloves and to knit various spring and autumn clothing items. In addition to keeping warm In addition, it also has a decorative effect.
(1) Yarns are divided according to spinning technology
Combed yarn: Yarn spun through combing process. Compared with carded yarn, it uses better materials, the fibers in the yarn are straight and parallel, the yarn quality is excellent, and the yarn fineness is finer.
Carded yarn: yarn spun through general spinning process. Also called carded yarn, cotton spinning and wool spinning are slightly different.
(2) According to the fiber length of the yarn
Filament yarn : Yarn formed by combining, twisting or deforming one or more continuous filaments.
Short fiber yarn: Short fiber is twisted and spun into yarn with a certain fineness, which can be divided into three types.
①Cotton yarn: yarn made from raw cotton or cotton fibers pure or blended on cotton spinning equipment.
② Medium-long fiber yarn: Yarn made from medium-long fibers processed on cotton spinning or special equipment, with -.
③Wool-type yarn: yarn made of wool fibers or wool-type fibers pure or blended on wool spinning equipment.
Filament and short fiber combination yarn: yarn spun from short fiber and filament using special methods, such as core-spun yarn, wrapped yarn, etc.
(3) According to the types of fibers that make up the yarn
Pure spinning yarn : Yarn spun from one type of fiber is called pure spun yarn. When naming, add the word “pure” and the name of the fiber, such as pure polyester yarn, pure cotton yarn, etc.;
Blended yarn: use two or more Yarn spun from a mixture of the above fibers. The naming rules for blended yarns are: when the raw material blending ratios are different, the one with the larger ratio comes first; when the ratios are the same, they are arranged in the order of natural fibers, synthetic fibers, and regenerated fibers. When writing, write the raw material ratio and fiber type together, and separate the raw materials and ratios with a semicolon “/”. Such as polyester/cotton (65/35) yarn, wool/nitrile (50/50) yarn, polyester/viscose (50/50) yarn, etc.
Twisted yarn: a yarn twisted from two or more different fibers or single yarns of different colors.
Mixed fiber yarn: a yarn made by combining two kinds of filaments to improve certain aspects of performance.
(4) Yarn is divided according to dyeing and finishing processing
Primary color yarn: not Yarn that retains the original color of the fiber after any dyeing and finishing process.
Bleached yarn: yarn that has been bleached and has a whiter color. Usually refers to cotton yarn and linen yarn.
Dyeed yarn: yarn that has been dyed and processed into various colors.
Colored yarn: yarn spun from colored fibers.
Singeed yarn: a yarn that has been processed by singeing and has a smooth surface.
Mercerized yarn: mercerized yarn, including mercerized cotton yarn and mercerized wool yarn. Mercerized cotton yarn is a yarn that is treated in a certain concentration of alkali solution to give the yarn a silky luster and higher strength; mercerized wool yarn is to remove the scales of the fibers in the wool yarn, making the yarn soft and too irritating to the skin.
(5) Yarns are classified according to yarn linear density
Cotton type yarn The thread is subdivided according to thickness into thick special (number) yarn, medium special (number) yarn, thin (number) yarn and extra fine (number) yarn.
Coarse special yarn: refers to yarn with a linear density of 32tex or above.
Medium special yarn: refers to yarn with a linear density of 31-21tex.
Fine special yarn: refers to yarn with a linear density of 11~20tex or above.
Extra-fine yarn: refers to yarn with a linear density of 10tex and below.
(6) According to the structure and shape of yarn
Yarns are made of A continuous strip composed of textile fibers with certain mechanical properties, fineness and softness.
The so-called “yarn” is actually the collective name of “yarn” and “thread”. It is generally defined as: yarn is made of various textile fibers It is a continuous linear object made of raw materials. It is thin and soft and has the basic properties required for textile processing and final product use. In textiles, “yarn” and “thread” are often defined separately, that is, “yarn” is a combination of many short fibers or filaments arranged in a nearly parallel state, and rotated and twisted along the axis to form a strong and thread-like structure. Density products, and “thread” is a product made of two or more single yarns twisted together, which is called a thread or strand.
Yarns can be divided into different types according to different classification basis.
Yarns can be roughly divided into 10 types according to their structure and appearance.
Monofilament: refers to a continuous single fiber with a very long length.
Multifilament: refers to a bundle of two or more monofilaments combined together.
Twisted yarn: a yarn formed by twisting multifilament yarn.
Composite twisted silk: The twisted silk is combined and twisted one or more times to form a composite twisted silk.
Textured yarn: Chemical fiber raw filaments are deformed to have appearance characteristics such as curls, spirals, and loops. The purpose of processing is to increase the bulkiness, stretchability and elasticity of the craftsman. According to the performance characteristics of the shape, there are usually three types: elastic yarn, bulked yarn and network yarn.
Single yarn: a single continuous strip formed by spinning short fibers.
Strand: Two or more single yarns are combined and twisted. If it is formed by merging two single yarns, it is called a double-stranded yarn, and if it is formed by three or more single yarns, it is called a multi-stranded yarn. The strands are then combined and twisted to become double-twisted strands.
Fancy thread: a yarn made with special technology and with special appearance and color, including fancy thread and decorative thread. It is formed by twisting core yarn, decorative yarn and fixed yarn on a fancy twisting machine. The surface has special appearance shapes or colors such as fiber knots, slubs, loops, braids, spirals, and waves.
Textured yarn: Bulked yarn is a plump yarn with high softness that is processed by the heat shrinkage (thermoplasticity) of proline fiber. . The aliphatic fibers with low shrinkage performance and high shrinkage performance are mixed in a certain ratio to make yarn, and then relaxed and heat-set. In this way, the high-shrinkage fiber shrinks greatly and forms a yarn core, while the low-shrinkage fiber shrinks slightly and is extruded on the surface to form an arc, thereby producing fluffy yarn.
Core-spun yarn: It is a yarn formed by using filament or short fiber yarn as the yarn core and wrapping other fibers or yarns.